Stretch for Success: Techniques for Runners

March 26, 2013 | Dan Hutchison

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Traditionally we've been led to believe that stretching is a requirement before any athletic activity. But this may not be true for elite runners. (See Stretching Do's and Don'ts with Washington Sprinters.)

To use the elasticity of their muscles, runners—both sprinters and long distance marathoners—need to avoid static stretches before a race, and instead perform dynamic warm-ups. This actually enhances the ability of the legs to increase the storage and return of elastic energy within the muscles.[1]

Nevertheless, stretching should still be an important part of a runner's program. Muscles are less susceptible to injury when they have been stretched. However, the time to target areas where the level of stiffness is higher than optimal is after activity.

The best stretching techniques for runners involve combining dynamic motion with the pliability characteristics of warm muscles—in short, resistance stretching combined with  foam rolling.

Here is a full routine, which takes between five and eight minutes and incorporates both techniques.

Resistance Stretches

Calves

 photo CalfStretch_zpsf5e7ace0.jpg

Hamstrings

 photo HamPos1_zpse80060d0.jpg photo HamPos2_zpsabf47ba1.jpg

  • Keep hip at 90-degree angle
  • Straighten the leg (with ankle dorsiflexion) for five seconds
  • Lower and relax for five seconds

Quadriceps/Hip Flexor

 photo HipFlexStretch_zps96e5e5e3.jpg

  • In a stretched position of the hip, push the foot into the ball for five seconds
  • Contract the quad
  • Hold and relax the muscle for five seconds

IT Band/Lateral Hip

 photo ITPos1_zps763eebff.jpg photo ITPos2_zpse105a162.jpg

  • Keep the hip internally rotated and positioned under the body
  • Relax into stretch for five seconds
  • Raise forearms (push against floor with bottom leg) for five seconds

Self-Massage or Foam Rolling

Roll over the entire length of the relaxed muscle, being cautious over sensitive areas and boney projections. Start with 10 to 15 rolls and apply pressure based on your individual tolerance (uncomfortable, but not painful). Progress to 25 to 30 rolls over time.

Calves

 photo FRCalf_zps635cdc5e.jpg

  • Roll from one to two inches above the heel to the back of the knee

Hamstrings

 photo FRHammy_zpsf74c4e46.jpg

  • Roll from behind the knee to just before the gluteal folds
  • Rotate the toes in and out to massage all three hamstring tendons

Quadriceps

 photo FRQuad_zps959c4e38.jpg

  • Roll from just above the kneecap to the lower hip flexor, three to four inches below the hip bones

IT Band/Lateral Hip

 photo FRITBand_zps21fc7459.jpg

  • Roll from the hip (most superficial lateral hip bone) to the knee
  • Apply less pressure early to this area due to IT Band sensitivity

Reference

[1] Herda, TJ, et al. (2011). "Effects of two modes of static stretching on muscle strength and stiffness." Med Sci Sport Ex 43(9): 1777-1784.

Photo: bootycampsb.com

Topics: STRETCHING
Dan Hutchison
- Dan Hutchinson, CSCS, ATC, USAW1, is an exercise physiologist, performance coach and training consultant through D2K Training and Consulting. A native of North Dakota, he...
Dan Hutchison
- Dan Hutchinson, CSCS, ATC, USAW1, is an exercise physiologist, performance coach and training consultant through D2K Training and Consulting. A native of North Dakota, he...
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